1. Water Management
Freshwater easy access and consumption for human beings represents a tiny fraction of all that there is on the planet; less than one ten-thousandth part of it (0.2% of total). This amount of freshwater in relation to population growth, especially with the unbalanced dynamic between population concentration and water availability, makes evident the trend toward shortages, and increased conflicts at watershed level. In the area of Peru, there is an imbalance in the concentration of the population and the availability of water, expressed in 70% of the Peruvian population is settled in the region Costa (Pacific side) where it is available only 1.7% water; while the remaining 30% of the population is settled in the Andes and the jungle region (sides of the Atlantic and Titicaca) where 98.3% of the water is available.
Imbalance between population concentration and distribution of water available.
The international community has made a series of lectures and meetings with the aim of addressing the global problem of water shortages and has generated and agreed a set of principles to guide a new relationship between society and water, searching that this essential resource is managed sustainably. Among them are those held in Dublin in 1992 and Bonn in 2001 in which it was specifically made progress in the identification and discussion of the guiding principles for sustainable water management.
¿What is Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM?
According to the Global Water Partnership (Global Water Partnership - GWP), Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. This management should be systematic for the development, allocation and monitoring of water use, according to social, economic and environmental objectives that seek for sustainable development.
The 1992 Dublin Principles
The IWRM principles are based on the principles of the Dublin Statement (1992) and are described as follows:
"Freshwater is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment".
"The development of water resources and their management should be based on a participatory approach, involving planners and policymakers at all levels.".
"Women play a major role in the provision, management and safeguarding of water".
"Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good".
Integrated Management of Water Resources in Peru
Peru is a privileged country for its water supply, it has an average annual volume of water 2'046,287 MMC, ranking among the 20 richest countries in the world with 72.510 cubic/meters/per capita/year; however, its topography defines three hydrographic areas that unbalance its spatial distribution, concentrating 98.3% of the volume on the Atlantic slope and Titicaca where settles 30% of the population that produces 19.6% of the GDP, and the remaining 1.7% is in the Pacific slope, where paradoxically 70% of the population that produces 80.4% of the GDP is concentrated.
The uneven spatial distribution of water and its seasonal variability determine significant differences in resource availability: extreme aridity in the southern Pacific slope; moderate stress and abundance in north Pacific into the Atlantic. This determines that the Pacific slope possesses great limitations in the availability of water resources, so that in this aspect, most of conflicts arise in this slope over access to water. The conflicts between competing users of water are becoming more frequent, as the demands increase in the corresponding production sectors. The waste of water resources and its conflicting management has stimulated the depletion of availability. Water pollution caused by human activities, is becoming ever more frequent and widespread causing a decrease in the volume of usable water.
In the above context the inclusion of the social dimension is crucial highlighting the need for a new and efficient management of water resources, focusing on the full understanding of the hydrological cycle to better assess water resources in order to have greater certainty in decision making.
In 2004, the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG) considered relevant the preparation of the National Strategy for the Management of Water Resources in terms of:
a) The rational and sustainable water use.
b) The watershed as an integrated management unit; the multisectoral nature of water; and protection and resource conservation, among others. In this regard, the Multisectoral Technical Commission was established for this purpose who in 2007, after extensive discussion on a Regional and Local level by RM N° 051-2007-PCM published the document "Policy and National Water Resources Strategy of Peru."
2. Food security
Refers to food availability, access of people to them, and biological utilization thereof. It is considered that a home is in a situation of food security when its members have sustained sufficient food in quantity and quality according to the biological needs.
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the concept of food security appears in the 1970s. It has evolved from quantitative and economic considerations towards a definition that takes into account the human dimension of the phenomenon.
A definition offered in 1975 identified food security with the "ability to provision at all times to everyone in commodities, so that you can sustain food consumption growth, fluctuations and supporting prices."
In 1990 the definition included the ability to ensure that the food system would provide the entire population of nutritionally adequate food supply in a long term. This evolution has influenced the design of the different strategies undertaken by FAO and other humanitarian actors in order to ensure food security for all, especially the South.
The components of food security are:
The availability of sufficient food of adequate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports (including food aid).
Access to food:
Access of individuals to adequate resources (resources they are entitled to) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. These rights are defined as the set of all product groups for which a person can have dominion under legal, political, economic and social arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional rights such as the access to collective resources).
The biological utilization of food through adequate diet, drinking water, sanitation and health care in order to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met. This concept emphasizes the importance of non-food inputs in food security.
To be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks (eg. an economic or climatic crisis) or cyclical events (eg. seasonal food insecurity). Thus, the concept of stability refers to both the extent of availability and the access to food security.
Effects of climate change on food security:
Significant changes in climatic conditions will affect food security through its impacts on all components of the global, national and local food systems. The extreme weather events more frequent and more intense and irregular as well as the droughts, higher sea levels and the increasing irregularities in the regimes of the rainy season that already have a direct impact on food production, on the infrastructure of food distribution, the incidence of food crises, goods and opportunities for livelihoods and human health in both rural and urban areas. It is likely that the effects of gradual changes in the average temperature and precipitation are discontinuous, whether positive or negative.
They can include:
- Changes in land suitability for different types of crops and pastures.
- Changes in the health and productivity of forests.
- Changes in distribution, productivity and community composition of marine resources.
- Changes in the incidence and vectors of different types of pests and diseases.
- Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in natural habitats.
- Changes in the distribution of good quality water for crops, livestock and inland fish production.
- Loss of arable land due to increasing aridity and associated salinity, groundwater lowering and rising sea level.
- Changes in opportunities for livelihoods.
- Internal and international migration.
3. Risk Management
Defined as "the process of adopting policies, strategies and practices aimed at reducing disaster risks or minimize their effects." This implies, among other interventions, influencing the processes of development planning to reduce the causes of vulnerabilities and hazards.
Natural hazards can be classified as follows: meteorological / climatic, geophysical, biological, anthropogenic and mixed.
A large part of natural hazards are strongly linked to atmospheric conditions:
- Risks where dangerousness is exclusively linked to weather or climatic conditions: High winds, cold or heat waves, hailstorms, snowfall.
- Rural communities are the most vulnerable to natural hazards because: They depend heavily on natural resources: The survival of the population, especially in rural Andean areas depend on natural resources and climate-sensitive sectors, such as agriculture, livestock and forestry.
- They lack of livelihoods and access to resources: they face constraints to sustain or rebuild their livelihoods after the risk materializes: low income, poor health conditions, poor access to drinking water and sanitation systems, poor infrastructure and weak social organizations.
- In most cases there are neither plans for disaster prevention nor organizational capabilities to develop and implement them.
- Afectación de cultivos (plagas)
- Afectación de personas (epidemias)
The risks are exacerbated by climate change, finding the opportunity of PACC to implement concerted measures to reduce these impacts. Risk management must be undertaken with a focus on sustainability and security to manage the territory.
The basis for efficient risk management is the development of capabilities of people joined to the institutional strengthening of organizations and their structures, also the implementation of policies; standards contribute to reducing vulnerabilities and risks under the Program regarding the most relevant hazards identified.